Surface oxidation activates indium tin oxide for hole injection

D. J. Milliron, I. G. Hill, C. Shen, A. Kahn, J. Schwartz

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

300 Scopus citations


Oxygen plasma treatment of indium tin oxide (ITO) results in a change in work function and electron affinity by ∼0.5 eV. This change correlates with the measured increase in injected current in simple "hole-only" organic devices with O-plasma treated ITO electrodes. Neither addition nor removal of surface hydroxyl functionality accounts for the observed work function and electron affinity changes. X-ray and ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopies show a new type of oxygen species is formed. Oxidation of surface Sn-OH to surface Sn-O units is proposed to account for the observed changes in O-plasma treated ITO; this proposal can explain a wide variety of previously described ITO surface activation results.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)572-576
Number of pages5
JournalJournal of Applied Physics
Issue number1
StatePublished - Jan 1 2000

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • General Physics and Astronomy


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