• Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) molecules interact in the outer membrane (OM) of gram-negative bacteria, preventing free diffusion of compounds from and into such cells. • The SecYEG complex translocates both β-barrel proteins and lipoproteins across the inner membrane (IM) from the bacterial cytoplasm into the periplasm, where such proteins are shuttled to separate OM assembly sites. • Either soluble proteins within the periplasm shuttle LPS from the IM to a docking site at the OM, or LPS travels through points of contact between the IM and OM. • LPS is assembled at the cell surface either by a two-step process in which such molecules are first delivered to the inner leaflet of theOMand then flipped to the outer leaflet, or by a concerted process in which LPS molecules are inserted directly into the outer leaflet.
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