Submicrometre geometrically encoded fluorescent barcodes self-assembled from DNA

Chenxiang Lin, Ralf Jungmann, Andrew M. Leifer, Chao Li, Daniel Levner, George M. Church, William M. Shih, Peng Yin

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

224 Scopus citations


The identification and differentiation of a large number of distinct molecular species with high temporal and spatial resolution is a major challenge in biomedical science. Fluorescence microscopy is a powerful tool, but its multiplexing ability is limited by the number of spectrally distinguishable fluorophores. Here, we used (deoxy)ribonucleic acid (DNA)-origami technology to construct submicrometre nanorods that act as fluorescent barcodes. We demonstrate that spatial control over the positioning of fluorophores on the surface of a stiff DNA nanorod can produce 216 distinct barcodes that can be decoded unambiguously using epifluorescence or total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy. Barcodes with higher spatial information density were demonstrated via the construction of super-resolution barcodes with features spaced by ∼440 nm. One species of the barcodes was used to tag yeast surface receptors, which suggests their potential applications as in situ imaging probes for diverse biomolecular and cellular entities in their native environments.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)832-839
Number of pages8
JournalNature chemistry
Issue number10
StatePublished - Oct 2012

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • General Chemistry
  • General Chemical Engineering


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