Study on cool flame radical index and oxygen concentration dependence of oxygenated fuels

Ziyu Wang, Mengni Zhou, Pascal Diévart, Ying Lin, Ning Liu, Chao Yan, Yiguang Ju

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

3 Scopus citations


The growing utilization of alternative fuels has sparked an interest in understanding the combustion characteristics of oxygenated fuels at low temperature. Cool flame extinction limits provide direct measures of the low-temperature reactivity of fuels and critical information for advanced low-temperature combustion engine design. This paper investigates the effects of fuel and oxygen concentrations on the extinction limits of diffusion cool flames for oxygenated fuels, including dimethyl ether, methyl decanoate, and 1-dodecanol in an atmospheric counterflow burner. The cool flame radical indexes of these oxygenated fuels are developed by isolating the thermal and transport effects from the chemical contribution to diffusion cool flame extinction. The results show that the ranking of low-temperature reactivities of long carbon chain oxygenated fuels, compared with n-alkane, is ether > n-alkane > alcohol > ester for a similar carbon number. Furthermore, due to the critical role of multiple oxygen addition reactions in the low-temperature chemistry, the relationship between the cool flame extinction limit and the oxygen concentration is also explored. The results show that the cool flame extinction limits of the oxygenated fuels are proportional to a nth power of the oxygen concentration, [O2]n, due to the combined effects of multiple oxygen addition reactions and the negative temperature coefficient in low-temperature chemistry. Additionally, the measured n number of 1-dodecanol is found to be larger than 2, which suggests the existence of the third oxygen addition reactions in low-temperature chemistry for large alcohols.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number112493
JournalCombustion and Flame
StatePublished - Nov 2023

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • General Chemistry
  • General Chemical Engineering
  • Fuel Technology
  • Energy Engineering and Power Technology
  • General Physics and Astronomy


  • Cool flame
  • Extinction limit
  • Oxygen concentration dependence
  • Oxygenated fuels
  • Radical index


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