Stress exposure and stress generation in child and adolescent depression: A latent trait-state-error approach to longitudinal analyses

David A. Cole, Susan Nolen-Hoeksema, Joan Girgus, Gilda Paul

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

109 Scopus citations

Abstract

In 2 longitudinal studies of negative life events and depressive symptoms in adolescents (N = 708) and in children (N = 508), latent trait-state-error structural equation models tested both the stress generation hypothesis and the stress exposure hypothesis. Results strongly suggested that self-reports of depressive symptoms reflect the influence of a perfectly stable trait factor as well as a less stable state factor. Support emerged for both the stress generation model and the stress exposure model. When the state depression factor was modeled as predicting stress, support for the stress generation model appeared to increase with age. When the trait depression factor was modeled as the predictor of stress, support for the stress generation model did not vary with the child's age. In both models, support for the stress exposure remained relatively constant across age.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)40-51
Number of pages12
JournalJournal of Abnormal Psychology
Volume115
Issue number1
DOIs
StatePublished - Feb 2006

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Psychiatry and Mental health
  • Biological Psychiatry

Keywords

  • Adolescents
  • Children
  • Depression
  • Longitudinal
  • Stress

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