STAR: Simultaneous Transmission and Reflection for 360° Coverage by Intelligent Surfaces

Yuanwei Liu, Xidong Mu, Jiaqi Xu, Robert Schober, Yang Hao, H. Vincent Poor, Lajos Hanzo

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

217 Scopus citations


A novel simultaneous transmitting and reflecting (STAR) system design relying on reconfigurable intelligent surfaces (RISs) is conceived. First, an existing prototype is reviewed, and the potential benefits of STAR-RISs are discussed. Then the key differences between conventional reflecting-only RISs and STAR-RISs are identified from the perspectives of hardware design, physical principles, and communication system design. Furthermore, the basic signal model of STAR-RISs is introduced, and three practical protocols are proposed for their operation, namely energy splitting, mode switching, and time switching. Based on the proposed protocols, a range of promising application scenarios are put forward for integrating STAR-RISs into next-generation wireless networks. By considering the downlink of a typical RIS-aided multiple-input single-output system, numerical case studies are provided for revealing the superiority of STAR-RISs over other baselines when employing the proposed protocols. Finally, several open research problems are discussed.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)102-109
Number of pages8
JournalIEEE Wireless Communications
Issue number6
StatePublished - Dec 1 2021

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Computer Science Applications
  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering


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