@article{4d634b6c43684edcb4ffdf7e67b91834,

title = "Speed and Acceleration of Droplets Generated by Breaking Wind-Forced Waves",

abstract = "Laboratory measurements of droplet size, velocity, and accelerations generated by mechanically and wind-forced water breaking waves are reported. The wind free stream velocity is up to 12 m/s, leading to wave slopes from 0.15 to 0.35 at a fetch of 23 m. The ratio of wind free stream and wave phase speed ranges from 5.9 to 11.1, depending on the mechanical wave frequency. The droplet size distribution in all configurations can be represented by two power laws, N(d) ∝ d−1 for drops from 30 to 600 μm and N(d) ∝ d−4 above 600 μm. The horizontal and vertical droplet velocities appear correlated, with drops with slower horizontal speed more likely to move upward. The velocity and acceleration distributions are found to be asymmetric, with the velocity probability density functions (PDFs) being described by a normal-inverse-Gaussian distribution. The horizontal acceleration PDF are found to follow a shape close to the one predicted for small particles in homogeneous and isotropic turbulence, while the vertical distribution follows an asymmetric normal shape, showing that both acceleration components are controlled by different physical processes.",

keywords = "air-sea interaction, spray generated by breaking waves, spray statistics",

author = "Erinin, {M. A.} and B. N{\'e}el and Ruth, {D. J.} and M. Mazzatenta and Jaquette, {R. D.} and F. Veron and L. Deike",

note = "Funding Information: The support of the Division of Ocean Sciences of the National Science Foundation (NSF) under grant OCE1849762 to L. Deike and OCE1829660 to F. Veron are gratefully acknowledged. This work was also supported by the Metropolis Initiative at Princeton University and the Collaborative Institute for Modeling the Earth System between NOAA GFDL and Princeton University. This material is based upon work supported by the NSF Graduate Research Fellowship awarded to M. Mazzatenta. The authors also acknowledge Prof. Joseph Katz for allowing us to use his GPU‐compatible hologram reconstruction algorithm. The authors would like to acknowledge the Princeton Research Computing resources at Princeton University, which is a consortium of groups led by the Princeton Institute for Computational Science and Engineering and Office of Information Technology's Research Computing. We thank Dr. Reyna de la Torre and Prof. Atle Jensen for discussion on measuring droplet acceleration statistics, and Dr. Patricia Ern for discussion on the droplet velocity statistics. Funding Information: The support of the Division of Ocean Sciences of the National Science Foundation (NSF) under grant OCE1849762 to L. Deike and OCE1829660 to F. Veron are gratefully acknowledged. This work was also supported by the Metropolis Initiative at Princeton University and the Collaborative Institute for Modeling the Earth System between NOAA GFDL and Princeton University. This material is based upon work supported by the NSF Graduate Research Fellowship awarded to M. Mazzatenta. The authors also acknowledge Prof. Joseph Katz for allowing us to use his GPU-compatible hologram reconstruction algorithm. The authors would like to acknowledge the Princeton Research Computing resources at Princeton University, which is a consortium of groups led by the Princeton Institute for Computational Science and Engineering and Office of Information Technology's Research Computing. We thank Dr. Reyna de la Torre and Prof. Atle Jensen for discussion on measuring droplet acceleration statistics, and Dr. Patricia Ern for discussion on the droplet velocity statistics. Publisher Copyright: {\textcopyright} 2022. American Geophysical Union. All Rights Reserved.",

year = "2022",

month = jul,

day = "16",

doi = "10.1029/2022GL098426",

language = "English (US)",

volume = "49",

journal = "Geophysical Research Letters",

issn = "0094-8276",

publisher = "American Geophysical Union",

number = "13",

}