Source of Radio Emissions Induced by the Galilean Moons Io, Europa and Ganymede: In Situ Measurements by Juno

C. K. Louis, P. Louarn, B. Collet, N. Clément, S. Al Saati, J. R. Szalay, V. Hue, L. Lamy, S. Kotsiaros, W. S. Kurth, C. M. Jackman, Y. Wang, M. Blanc, F. Allegrini, J. E.P. Connerney, D. Gershman

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

2 Scopus citations


At Jupiter, part of the auroral radio emissions are induced by the Galilean moons Io, Europa and Ganymede. Until now, except for Ganymede, they have been only remotely detected, using ground–based radio–telescopes or electric antennas aboard spacecraft. The polar trajectory of the Juno orbiter allows the spacecraft to cross the range of magnetic flux tubes which sustain the various Jupiter–satellite interactions, and in turn to sample in situ the associated radio emission regions. In this study, we focus on the detection and the characterization of radio sources associated with Io, Europa and Ganymede. Using electric wave measurements or radio observations (Juno/Waves), in situ electron measurements (Juno/JADE–E), and magnetic field measurements (Juno/MAG) we demonstrate that the Cyclotron Maser Instability (CMI) driven by a loss–cone electron distribution function is responsible for the encountered radio sources. We confirmed that radio emissions are associated with Main (MAW) or Reflected Alfvén Wing (RAW), but also show that for Europa and Ganymede, induced radio emissions are associated with Transhemispheric Electron Beam (TEB). For each traversed radio source, we determine the latitudinal extension, the CMI–resonant electron energy, and the bandwidth of the emission. We show that the presence of Alfvén perturbations and downward field–aligned currents are necessary for the radio emissions to be amplified.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article numbere2023JA031985
JournalJournal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics
Issue number12
StatePublished - Dec 2023

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Geophysics
  • Space and Planetary Science


  • cyclotron maser instability
  • Europa
  • Galilean moons (Io
  • Ganymede)
  • Juno
  • Jupiter
  • radio emission


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