Catalytic asymmetric alkylation reactions of branched racemic carbonates 1a and 1b with sodium dimethyl malonate, promoted by molybdenum and ligand 5, proceed by a kinetic resolution in toluene, THF, tetrahydropyran, i-PrOAc, 1,2-dichloroethane, and MeCN with krel of 7-16. In THF, MeCN, tetrahydropyran, and i-PrOAc using the (S,S)-5 ligand, the fast reacting (S)-carbonate enantiomer provides the branched product with high ee (97-99.5%) and branched/linear selectivity, but the ee erodes as the reaction of the slow-reacting (R)-enantiomer takes place. This implies that the rate of equilibration of the oxidative addition complexes in these solvents is competitive with the subsequent malonate displacement step. In toluene and dichloroethane, the ee and branched/linear ratios diminish during the reaction of the slow-reacting (R)-isomer, but not nearly as much as in the other solvents. This is most likely due to either an increase in the rate of equilibration of the oxidative addition complexes relative to the malonate displacement step, or vice versa. Because of the minimal stereochemical memory effect in toluene and 1,2-dichloroethane, the reactions in these solvents can be carried to completion (dynamic kinetic asymmetric transformation) and still provide product with excellent ee (>95%). The anion of dimethyl methylmalonate also reacts via a kinetic resolution, although the ee's, rates, and krel values differ from those of the reactions with dimethyl malonate.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Organic Chemistry