Ulysses plasma observations reveal that the forward shocks that commonly bound the leading edges of corotating interaction regions (CIRs) beyond ∼2 AU from the Sun at low heliographic latitudes nearly disappeared at a latitude of S26°. On the other hand, the reverse shocks that commonly bound the trailing edges of the CIRs were observed regularly up to S41.5°, but became weaker with increasing latitude. Only three CIR shocks have been observed poleward of S41.5°; all of these were weak reverse shocks. The above effects are a result of the forward waves propagating to lower heliographic latitudes and the reverse waves to higher latitudes with increasing heliocentric distance. These observational results are in excellent agreement with the predictions of a global model of solar wind flows that originate in a simple tilted-dipole geometry back at the Sun.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Astronomy and Astrophysics
- Space and Planetary Science