Soft handoff and uplink capacity in a two-tier CDMA System

Shalinee Kishore, Larry J. Greenstein, H. Vincent Poor, Stuart C. Schwartz

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21 Scopus citations


This paper examines the effect of soft handoff on the uplink user capacity of a code division multiple access system consisting of a single macrocell in which a single hotspot microcell is embedded. The users of these two base stations operate over the same frequency band. In the soft-handoff scenario studied here, both macrocell and microcell base stations serve each system user, and the two received copies of a desired user's signal are summed using maximal ratio combining. Exact and approximate analytical methods are developed to compute uplink user capacity. Simulation results demonstrate a 20% increase in user capacity compared to hard handoff. In addition, simple approximate methods are presented for estimating soft-handoff capacity and are shown to be quite accurate.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1297-1301
Number of pages5
JournalIEEE Transactions on Wireless Communications
Issue number4
StatePublished - Jul 2005
Externally publishedYes

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Computer Science Applications
  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering
  • Applied Mathematics


  • Code division multiple access (CDMA)
  • Macrocell
  • Microcell
  • Soft handoff
  • User capacity


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