Social disadvantage, genetic sensitivity, and children's telomere length

Colter Mitchell, John Hobcraft, Sara S. McLanahan, Susan Rutherfor Siegeld, Arthur Berg, Jeanne Brooks-Gunn, Irwin Garfinkel, Daniel Notterman

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

227 Scopus citations


Disadvantaged social environments are associated with adverse health outcomes. This has been attributed, in part, to chronic stress. Telomere length (TL) has been used as a biomarker of chronic stress: TL is shorter in adults in a variety of contexts, including disadvantaged social standing and depression. We use data from 40, 9-y-old boys participating in the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study to extend this observation to African American children. We report that exposure to disadvantaged environments is associated with reduced TL by age 9 y. We document significant associations between low income, low maternal education, unstable family structure, and harsh parenting and TL. These effects were moderated by genetic variants in serotonergic and dopaminergic pathways. Consistent with the differential susceptibility hypothesis, subjects with the highest genetic sensitivity scores had the shortest TL when exposed to disadvantaged social environments and the longest TL when exposed to advantaged environments.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)5944-5949
Number of pages6
JournalProceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Issue number16
StatePublished - Apr 22 2014
Externally publishedYes

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • General


  • Adversity
  • Gene-environment
  • Senescence


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