Given the rapid development of advanced electromagnetic (EM) manipulation technologies, researchers have turned their attention to the investigation of smart surfaces for enhancing radio coverage. Simultaneously transmitting and reflecting (STAR) intelligent omni-surfaces (IOSs) constitute one of the most promising categories. Although previous research contributions have demonstrated the benefits of simultaneously transmitting and reflecting intelligent omni-surfaces (STAR-IOSs) in terms of wireless communication performance gains, several important issues remain unresolved, including practical hardware implementations and accurate physical models. In this article, we address these by discussing four practical hardware implementations of STAR-IOSs as well as three hardware modeling techniques and five channel modeling methods. We thus clarify the taxonomy of smart surface technologies in support of further investigating the family of STAR-IOSs.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Automotive Engineering