Simons Observatory Microwave SQUID Multiplexing Readout: Cryogenic RF Amplifier and Coaxial Chain Design

Mayuri Sathyanarayana Rao, Maximiliano Silva-Feaver, Aamir Ali, Kam Arnold, Peter Ashton, Bradley J. Dober, Cody J. Duell, Shannon M. Duff, Nicholas Galitzki, Erin Healy, Shawn Henderson, Shuay Pwu Patty Ho, Jonathan Hoh, Anna M. Kofman, Akito Kusaka, Adrian T. Lee, Aashrita Mangu, Justin Mathewson, Philip Mauskopf, Heather McCarrickJenna Moore, Michael D. Niemack, Christopher Raum, Maria Salatino, Trevor Sasse, Joseph Seibert, Sara M. Simon, Suzanne Staggs, Jason R. Stevens, Grant Teply, Robert Thornton, Joel Ullom, Eve M. Vavagiakis, Benjamin Westbrook, Zhilei Xu, Ningfeng Zhu

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

17 Scopus citations


The Simons Observatory (SO) is an upcoming polarization-sensitive cosmic microwave background experiment on the Cerro Toco Plateau (Chile) with large overlap with other optical and infrared surveys (e.g., DESI, LSST, HSC). To enable the readout of O(10,000) detectors in each of the four telescopes of SO, we will employ the microwave SQUID multiplexing technology. With a targeted multiplexing factor of O(1000), microwave SQUID multiplexing has never been deployed on the scale needed for SO. Here we present the design of the cryogenic coaxial cable and RF component chain that connects room temperature readout electronics to superconducting resonators that are coupled to transition edge sensor bolometers operating at sub-Kelvin temperatures. We describe design considerations including cryogenic RF component selection, system linearity, noise, and thermal power dissipation.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)807-816
Number of pages10
JournalJournal of Low Temperature Physics
Issue number3-4
StatePublished - May 1 2020

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Atomic and Molecular Physics, and Optics
  • General Materials Science
  • Condensed Matter Physics


  • CMB
  • Instrument design
  • Multiplexing
  • Readout


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