Setting the stage for circumstellar interaction in core-collapse supernovae. II. wave-driven mass loss in supernova progenitors

Joshua H. Shiode, Eliot Quataert

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177 Scopus citations


Supernovae (SNe) powered by interaction with circumstellar material provide evidence for intense stellar mass loss during the final years before core collapse. We have argued that during and after core neon burning, internal gravity waves excited by core convection can tap into the core fusion power and transport a super-Eddington energy flux out to the stellar envelope, potentially unbinding ∼1 solar mass of material. In this work, we explore the internal conditions of SN progenitors using the MESA one-dimensional stellar evolution code in search of those most susceptible to wave-driven mass loss. We focus on simple, order of magnitude considerations applicable to a wide range of progenitors. Wave-driven mass loss during core neon and oxygen fusion happens preferentially in either lower mass (∼20 solar mass zero-age main sequence) stars or massive, sub-solar metallicity stars. Roughly 20% of the SN progenitors we survey can excite 1046-48 erg of energy in waves that can potentially drive mass loss within a few months to a decade of core collapse. This energy can generate circumstellar environments with 10-3-1 solar masses reaching 100 AU before explosion. We predict a correlation between the energy associated with pre-SN mass ejection and the time to core collapse, with the most intense mass loss preferentially occurring closer to core collapse. During silicon burning, wave energy may inflate 10-3-1 solar masses of the envelope to 10-100 s of solar radii. This suggests that some nominally compact SN progenitors (Type Ibc progenitors) will have a significantly different SN shock breakout signature than traditionally assumed.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number96
JournalAstrophysical Journal
Issue number1
StatePublished - Jan 1 2014
Externally publishedYes

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Astronomy and Astrophysics
  • Space and Planetary Science


  • stars: mass-loss
  • stars: winds, outflows
  • supernovae: general


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