### Abstract

We prove tight lower bounds, of up to n^{∈}, for the monotone depth of functions in monotone-P. As a result we achieve the separation of the following classes. 1. monotone-NC ≠ monotone-P. 2. For every i≥1, monotone-NC^{i} ≠ monotone-NC^{i+1}. 3. More generally: For any integer function D(n), up to n^{∈} (for some ∈ > 0), we give an explicit example of a monotone Boolean function, that can be computed by polynomial size monotone Boolean circuits of depth D(n), but that cannot be computed by any (fan-in 2) monotone Boolean circuits of depth less than Const · D(n) (for some constant Const). Only a separation of monotone-NC^{1} from monotone-NC^{2} was previously known. Our argument is more general: we define a new class of communication complexity search problems, referred to below as DART games, and we prove a tight lower bound for the communication complexity of every member of this class. As a result we get lower bounds for the monotone depth of many functions. In particular, we get the following bounds: 1. For st-connectivity, we get a tight lower bound of Ω(log^{2} n). That is, we get a new proof for Karchmer-Wigderson's theorem, as an immediate corollary of our general result. 2. For the k-cliqne function, with k≤n∈, we get a tight lower bound of Ω(k log n). This lower bound was previously known for k ≤ log n [1]. For larger k, however, only a bound of Ω(k) was previously known.

Original language | English (US) |
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Pages (from-to) | 403-435 |

Number of pages | 33 |

Journal | Combinatorica |

Volume | 19 |

Issue number | 3 |

DOIs | |

State | Published - Jan 1 1999 |

Externally published | Yes |

### All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

- Discrete Mathematics and Combinatorics
- Computational Mathematics

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## Cite this

*Combinatorica*,

*19*(3), 403-435. https://doi.org/10.1007/s004930050062