Separated Twins or Just Siblings? A Multiplanet System around an M Dwarf Including a Cool Sub-Neptune

Mallory Harris, Diana Dragomir, Ismael Mireles, Karen A. Collins, Solène Ulmer-Moll, Steve B. Howell, Keivan G. Stassun, George Zhou, Carl Ziegler, François Bouchy, César Briceño, David Charbonneau, Kevin I. Collins, Gábor Fűűrész, Natalia M. Guerrero, Jon M. Jenkins, Eric L.N. Jensen, Martti H.K. Kristiansen, Nicholas Law, Monika LendlAndrew W. Mann, Hugh P. Osborn, Samuel N. Quinn, George R. Ricker, Richard P. Schwarz, Sara Seager, Eric B. Ting, Roland Vanderspek, David Watanabe, Joshua N. Winn

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


We report the discovery of two TESS sub-Neptunes orbiting the early M dwarf TOI-904 (TIC 261257684). Both exoplanets, 2.426 − 0.157 + 0.163 and 2.167 − 0.118 + 0.130 , were initially observed in TESS Sector 12 with twin sizes of 2.49 and 2.31 R , respectively. Through observations in five additional sectors in the TESS primary mission and the first and second extended missions, the orbital periods of the planets were measured to be 10.887 ± 0.001 and 83.999 ± 0.001 days, respectively. Reconnaissance radial velocity measurements (taken with EULER/CORALIE and SMARTS/CHIRON) and high-resolution speckle imaging with adaptive optics (obtained from SOAR/HRCAM and Gemini South/ZORRO) show no evidence of an eclipsing binary or a nearby companion, which, together with the low false-positive probabilities calculated with the statistical validation software TRICERATOPS, establishes the planetary nature of these candidates. The outer planet, TOI-904 c, is the longest-period M dwarf exoplanet found by TESS, with an estimated equilibrium temperature of 217 K. As the three other validated planets with comparable host stars and orbital periods were observed by Kepler around much dimmer stars (J mag > 12), TOI-904 c, orbiting a brighter star (J mag = 9.6), is the coldest M dwarf planet easily accessible for atmospheric follow-up. Future mass measurements and transmission spectroscopy of the similar-sized planets in this system could determine whether they are also similar in density and composition, suggesting a common formation pathway, or whether they have distinct origins.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article numberL1
JournalAstrophysical Journal Letters
Issue number1
StatePublished - Dec 1 2023

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Astronomy and Astrophysics
  • Space and Planetary Science


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