Sensing external stress: Watchdogs of the Escherichia coli cell envelope

Natividad Ruiz, Thomas J. Silhavy

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

254 Scopus citations


The Cpx and σE signaling systems monitor the cell envelope in Escherichia coli. When induced, each system triggers a signaling cascade that leads to the upregulation of factors needed to combat envelope damage. Although each system is distinct and can be uniquely induced by certain cues, they also share striking similarities. In this review, we discuss the recent progress in our understanding of the Cpx and σE systems and compare how both function to maintain the integrity of the cell envelope.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)122-126
Number of pages5
JournalCurrent opinion in microbiology
Issue number2
StatePublished - Apr 2005

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Microbiology (medical)
  • Infectious Diseases
  • Microbiology


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