Seasonal timing of first rain storms affects rare plant population dynamics

Jonathan M. Levine, A. Kathryn McEachern, Clark Cowan

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

40 Scopus citations


A major challenge in forecasting the ecological consequences of climate change is understanding the relative importance of changes to mean conditions vs. changes to discrete climatic events, such as storms, frosts, or droughts. Here we show that the first major storm of the growing season strongly influences the population dynamics of three rare and endangered annual plant species in a coastal California (USA) ecosystem. In a field experiment we used moisture barriers and water addition to manipulate the timing and temperature associated with first major rains of the season. The three focal species showed two- to fivefold variation in per capita population growth rates between the different storm treatments, comparable to variation found in a prior experiment imposing eightfold differences in season-long precipitation. Variation in germination was a major demographic driver of how two of three species responded to the first rains. For one of these species, the timing of the storm was the most critical determinant of its germination, while the other showed enhanced germination with colder storm temperatures. The role of temperature was further supported by laboratory trials showing enhanced germination in cooler treatments. Our work suggests that, because of species-specific cues for demographic transitions such as germination, changes to discrete climate events may be as, if not more, important than changes to season-long variables.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)2236-2247
Number of pages12
Issue number12
StatePublished - Dec 2011
Externally publishedYes

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Ecology, Evolution, Behavior and Systematics


  • Annual plant
  • California Channel Islands USA
  • Climate events
  • Germination
  • Gilia tenuiflora
  • Life-history transitions
  • Malacothrix indecora
  • Persistence under climate change
  • Phacelia insularis
  • Precipitation


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