Sealing Porous Media through Calcium Silicate Reactions with CO2to Enhance the Security of Geologic Carbon Sequestration

Florence T. Ling, Dan A. Plattenberger, Catherine A. Peters, Andres F. Clarens

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

7 Scopus citations


The injection of CO2 deep underground, e.g., geologic carbon sequestration, has attracted considerable attention for climate change mitigation. A reliable caprock for secure containment is essential, alongside strategies for sealing flow paths to prevent leaks. Ways in which reactions of CO2 with CaSiO3 can be used for targeted mineral precipitation and permeability control in situ. A one-dimensional reactive transport model was developed for a centimeter-scale system to explore connections between the pore and continuum scale. The model considered four reactions involving CaSiO3, CaCO3, SiO2(am), and the crystalline calcium silicate hydrate (CCSH) tobermorite. A key feature is incorporation of microporosity, with an attempt to represent favorable volume expanding changes from CCSH precipitation in porous media. At 150°C and 1.1 MPa CO2, representing typical laboratory conditions, the model predicted great permeability drop when reacting the pseudowollastonite CaSiO3 polymorph at elevated pH to produce CaCO3, SiO2(am), and tobermorite. The effect of increasing pH via by NaOH addition, which increased CO2 solubility, increased CaSiO3 dissolution, and supports tobermorite supersaturation. In contrast, reaction of the wollastonite polymorph results in CaCO3 and SiO2(am) formation, with limited permeability impact. Wollastonite's lower solubility and slower dissolution rate inhibited tobermorite formation. Simulation at the high pressures representative of deep subsurface field conditions (40°C and 7.5 MPa CO2) suggested that reaction of CaSiO3 with CO2 could reduce permeability and seal unwanted leakage pathways.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)127-142
Number of pages16
JournalEnvironmental Engineering Science
Issue number3
StatePublished - Mar 2021

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Environmental Chemistry
  • Waste Management and Disposal
  • Pollution


  • CO
  • calcium silicate
  • permeability
  • pseudowollastonite
  • reactive transport


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