Network operators want to enforce fair bandwidth sharing between users without solely relying on congestion control running on end-user devices. However, in edge networks (e.g., 5G), the number of user devices sharing a bottleneck link far exceeds the number of queues supported by today’s switch hardware; even accurately tracking per-user sending rates may become too resource-intensive. Meanwhile, traditional software-based queuing on CPUs struggles to meet the high throughput and low latency demanded by 5G users. We propose (), a per-user bandwidth limit enforcer that runs fully in the data plane of commodity switches. tracks each user’s approximate traffic rate and compares it against a bandwidth limit, which is iteratively updated via a real-time feedback loop to achieve max-min fairness across users. Using a novel sketch data structure, avoids storing per-user state, and therefore scales to thousands of slices and millions of users. Furthermore, supports network slicing, where each slice has a guaranteed share of the bandwidth that can be scavenged by other slices when under-utilized. Evaluation shows can achieve fair bandwidth allocation within 3.1ms, 13x faster than prior data-plane hierarchical schedulers.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1-12
Number of pages12
JournalIEEE/ACM Transactions on Networking
StateAccepted/In press - 2023

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Software
  • Computer Science Applications
  • Computer Networks and Communications
  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering


  • Bandwidth
  • Channel allocation
  • Data structures
  • Hardware
  • Minimax techniques
  • Network slicing
  • P4
  • Real-time systems
  • Resource management
  • admission control
  • fair queuing
  • packet scheduling
  • programmable data plane


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