SAT-based image computation with application in reachability analysis

Aarti Gupta, Zijiang Yang, Pranav Ashar, Anubhav Gupta

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

49 Scopus citations


Image computation finds wide application in VLSI CAD, such as state reachability analysis in formal verification and synthesis, combinational verification, combinational and sequential test. Existing BDD-based symbolic algorithms for image computation are limited by memory resources in practice, while SAT-based algorithms that can obtain the image by enumerating satisfying assignments to a CNF representation of the Boolean relation are potentially limited by time resources. We propose new algorithms that combine BDDs and SAT in order to exploit their complementary benefits, and to offer a mechanism for trading off space vs. time. In particular, (1) our integrated algorithm uses BDDs to represent the input and image sets, and a CNF formula to represent the Boolean relation, (2) a fundamental enhancement called BDD Bounding is used whereby the SAT solver uses the BDDs for the input set and the dynamically changing image set to prune the search space of all solutions, (3) BDDs are used to compute all solutions below intermediate points in the SAT decision tree, (4) a fine-grained variable quantification schedule is used for each BDD subproblem, based on the CNF representation of the Boolean relation. These enhancements coupled with more engineering heuristics lead to an overall algorithm that can potentially handle larger problems. This is supported by our preliminary results on exact reachability analysis of ISCAS benchmark circuits.

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Theoretical Computer Science
  • General Computer Science


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