Salts as Additives: A Route to Improve Performance and Stability of n-Type Organic Electrochemical Transistors

David Ohayon, Lucas Q. Flagg, Andrea Giugni, Shofarul Wustoni, Ruipeng Li, Tania C. Hidalgo Castillo, Abdul Hamid Emwas, Rajendar Sheelamanthula, Iain McCulloch, Lee J. Richter, Sahika Inal

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

6 Scopus citations

Abstract

Organic electrochemical transistors (OECTs) are becoming increasingly ubiquitous in various applications at the interface with biological systems. However, their widespread use is hampered by the scarcity of electron-conducting (n-type) backbones and the poor performance and stability of the existing n-OECTs. Here, we introduce organic salts as a solution additive to improve the transduction capability, shelf life, and operational stability of n-OECTs. We demonstrate that the salt-cast devices present a 10-fold increase in transconductance and achieve at least one year-long stability, while the pristine devices degrade within four months of storage. The salt-added films show improved backbone planarity and greater charge delocalization, leading to higher electronic charge carrier mobility. These films show a distinctly porous morphology where the interconnectivity is affected by the salt type, responsible for OECT speed. The salt-based films display limited changes in morphology and show lower water uptake upon electrochemical doping, a possible reason for the improved device cycling stability. Our work provides a new and easy route to improve n-type OECT performance and stability, which can be adapted for other electrochemical devices with n-type films operating at the aqueous electrolyte interface.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)242-254
Number of pages13
JournalACS Materials Au
Volume3
Issue number3
DOIs
StatePublished - May 10 2023
Externally publishedYes

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Electronic, Optical and Magnetic Materials
  • Biomaterials
  • Polymers and Plastics
  • Materials Chemistry

Keywords

  • additive
  • aqueous electrolytes
  • bioelectronics
  • doping
  • electron transporting polymers
  • organic electrochemical transistors
  • salt

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