RSQP: Problem-specific Architectural Customization for Accelerated Convex Quadratic Optimization

Maolin Wang, Ian McInerney, Bartolomeo Stellato, Stephen Boyd, Hayden Kwok Hay So

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution


Convex optimization is at the heart of many performance-critical applications across a wide range of domains. Although many high-performance hardware accelerators have been developed for specific optimization problems in the past, designing such accelerator is a challenging task and the resulting computing architecture is often so specific to the targeted application that they can hardly be reused even in a related application within the same domain. To accelerate general-purpose optimization solvers that must operate on diverse user input during run time, an ideal hardware solver should be able to adapt to the provided optimization problem dynamically while achieving high performance and power-efficiency. In this work, a hardware-accelerated general-purpose quadratic program solver, called RSQP, with reconfigurable functional units and data path that facilitate problem-specific customization is presented. RSQP uses a string-based encoding to describe the problem structure with fine granularity. Based on this encoding, functional units and datapath customized to the sparsity pattern of the problem are created by solving a dictionary-based lossless string compression problem and a mixed integer linear program respectively. RSQP has been integrated to accelerate the general-purpose quadratic programming solver OSQP and has been tested using an extensive benchmark with 120 optimization problems from 6 application domains. Through architectural customization, RSQP achieves up to 7× performance improvement over its baseline generic design. Furthermore, when compared with a CPU and a GPU-accelerated implementation, RSQP achieves up to 31.2× and 6.9× end-to-end speedup on these benchmark programs, respectively. Finally, the FPGA accelerator operates at up to 6.6× lower dynamic power consumption and up to 22.7× higher power efficiency over the GPU implementation, making it an attractive solution for power-conscious datacenter applications.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Title of host publicationISCA 2023 - Proceedings of the 2023 50th Annual International Symposium on Computer Architecture
PublisherInstitute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc.
Number of pages12
ISBN (Electronic)9798400700958
StatePublished - Jun 17 2023
Event50th Annual International Symposium on Computer Architecture, ISCA 2023 - Orlando, United States
Duration: Jun 17 2023Jun 21 2023

Publication series

NameProceedings - International Symposium on Computer Architecture
ISSN (Print)1063-6897


Conference50th Annual International Symposium on Computer Architecture, ISCA 2023
Country/TerritoryUnited States

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Hardware and Architecture


  • FPGA
  • convex optimization
  • domain-specific architectures
  • quadratic programming
  • reconfigurable computing


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