Several groups have reported that certain herpesvirus envelope proteins do not remain on the surface of cells that express them but rather are internalized by endocytosis in a recycling process. The biological function of membrane protein endocytosis in the virus life cycle remains a matter of speculation and debate. In this report, we demonstrate that some, but not all, membrane proteins encoded by the alphaherpesvirus pseudorabies virus (PRV) are internalized after reaching the plasma membrane. Glycoproteins gE and gB are internalized from the plasma membrane of cells, while gI and gC are not internalized efficiently. We show for gE that the cytoplasmic domain of the protein is required for endocytosis. While the gI protein is incapable of endocytosis on its own, it can be internalized when complexed with gE. We demonstrate that endocytosis of the gE-gI complex and gB occurs early after infection of tissue culture cells but that this process stops completely after 6 h of infection, a time that correlates with significant shutoff of host protein synthesis. We also show that gE protein internalized at 4 h postinfection is not present in virions formed at a later time. We discuss the differences in PRV gE and gI endocytosis compared to that of the varicella-zoster virus homologs and the possible roles of glycoprotein endocytosis in the virus life cycle.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Insect Science