When a bubble bursts at the surface of a liquid, it creates a jet that may break up and produce jet droplets. This phenomenon has motivated numerous studies due to its multiple applications, from bubbles in a glass of champagne to ocean/atmosphere interactions. We simulate the bursting of a single bubble by direct numerical simulations of the axisymmetric two-phase liquid-gas Navier-Stokes equations.We describe the number, size, and velocity of all the ejected droplets, for a wide range of control parameters, defined as nondimensional numbers, the Laplace number which compares capillary and viscous forces and the Bond number which compares gravity and capillarity. The total vertical momentum of the ejected droplets is shown to follow a simple scaling relationship with a primary dependency on the Laplace number. Through a simple evaporation model, coupled with the dynamics obtained numerically, it is shown that all the jet droplets (up to 14) produced by the bursting event must be taken into account as they all contribute to the total amount of evaporated water. A simple scaling relationship is obtained for the total amount of evaporated water as a function of the bubble size and fluid properties. This relationship is an important step toward building a physics-based model of the ocean-atmosphere water vapor fluxes controlled by bubbles bursting at the surface.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Computational Mechanics
- Modeling and Simulation
- Fluid Flow and Transfer Processes