Rheology and molecular structure of HPG gels

J. Kramer, A. Chu, R. K. Prud'homme

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution

1 Scopus citations


Hydroxypropyl guar (HPG) polymer solutions crosslinked with titanates (Ti) are used in hydraulic fracturing operations. The rheology of these gels arise from the complex interaction of polymer chemistry, metal ion chemistry, and flow history. We have employed several techniques (steady shear viscosity, dynamic oscillatory shear, Laser Doppler Anemometry, and freeze fracture electron microscopy) to develop a consistent picture of the factors controlling gel rheology. An impingement mixing technique has been developed to prepare uniform HPG gels and reproducible rheological data has been obtained. Dynamic oscillatory rheological measurements have been used as diagnostic probes of gel structure, and are shown to be useful in understanding chemical effects on gel structure. Laser Doppler Anemometry, a non-invasive technique for measuring velocity distributions, has been used to measure velocity profiles for gels under flow. Classical wall slip is not observed, rather distortions of the velocity profiles are observed for gels that have gelled under quiescent conditions. For gels made with impingement mixing linear velocity profiles are observed. Freeze fracture electron microscopy has been used to image gel structure and the results show the fracture of gel structure by shear. These.observations demonstrate the mechanism of temperature stabilization of the viscosity of crosslinked gels. Temperature stability measurements of gel viscosity have been made using a novel reciprocating capillary viscometer.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Title of host publicationSociety of Petroleum Engineers - SPE Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition 1986
PublisherSociety of Petroleum Engineers (SPE)
ISBN (Electronic)9781555636074
StatePublished - 1986
Event61st Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition 1986 - New Orleans, United States
Duration: Oct 5 1986Oct 8 1986

Publication series

NameProceedings - SPE Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition


Conference61st Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition 1986
Country/TerritoryUnited States
CityNew Orleans

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Fuel Technology
  • Energy Engineering and Power Technology


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