Rhapsody-G simulations - II. Baryonic growth and metal enrichment in massive galaxy clusters

Davide Martizzi, Oliver Hahn, Hao Yi Wu, August E. Evrard, Romain Teyssier, Risa H. Wechsler

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

24 Scopus citations


We study the evolution of the stellar component and the metallicity of both the intracluster medium and of stars in massive (Mvir ≈ 6 × 1014 M h-1) simulated galaxy clusters from the Rhapsody-G suite in detail and compare them to observational results. The simulations were performed with the AMR code ramses and include the effect of active galactic nucleus (AGN) feedback at the subgrid level. AGN feedback is required to produce realistic galaxy and cluster properties and plays a role in mixing material in the central regions and regulating star formation in the central galaxy. In both our low- and high-resolution runs with fiducial stellar yields, we find that stellar and ICM metallicities are a factor of 2 lower than in observations. We find that cool core clusters exhibit steeper metallicity gradients than non-cool core clusters, in qualitative agreement with observations. We verify that the ICM metallicities measured in the simulation can be explained by a simple 'regulator' model in which the metallicity is set by a balance of stellar yield and gas accretion. It is plausible that a combination of higher resolution and higher metal yield in AMR simulation would allow the metallicity of simulated clusters to match observed values; however, this hypothesis needs to be tested with future simulations. Comparison to recent literature highlights that results concerning the metallicity of clusters and cluster galaxies might depend sensitively on the scheme chosen to solve the hydrodynamics.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)4408-4427
Number of pages20
JournalMonthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society
Issue number4
StatePublished - Jul 11 2016
Externally publishedYes

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Astronomy and Astrophysics
  • Space and Planetary Science


  • Cosmology: Theory
  • Galaxies: Clusters: general
  • Large-scale structure of Universe
  • Methods: numerical


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