Rhapsody-G simulations - I. The cool cores, hot gas and stellar content of massive galaxy clusters

Oliver Hahn, Davide Martizzi, Hao Yi Wu, August E. Evrard, Romain Teyssier, Risa H. Wechsler

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

58 Scopus citations


We present the RHAPSODY-G suite of cosmological hydrodynamic zoom simulations of 10 massive galaxy clusters at the Mvir ~ 1015 M scale. These simulations include cooling and subresolution models for star formation and stellar and supermassive black hole feedback. The sample is selected to capture the whole gamut of assembly histories that produce clusters of similar final mass. We present an overview of the successes and shortcomings of such simulations in reproducing both the stellar properties of galaxies as well as properties of the hot plasma in clusters. In our simulations, a long-lived cool-core/non-cool-core dichotomy arises naturally, and the emergence of non-cool cores is related to low angular momentum major mergers. Nevertheless, the cool-core clusters exhibit a low central entropy compared to observations, which cannot be alleviated by thermal active galactic nuclei feedback. For cluster scaling relations, we find that the simulations match well the M500-Y500 scaling of Planck Sunyaev-Zeldovich clusters but deviate somewhat from the observed X-ray luminosity and temperature scaling relations in the sense of being slightly too bright and too cool at fixed mass, respectively. Stars are produced at an efficiency consistent with abundance-matching constraints and central galaxies have star formation rates consistent with recent observations. While our simulations thus match various key properties remarkably well, we conclude that the shortcomings strongly suggest an important role for non-thermal processes (through feedback or otherwise) or thermal conduction in shaping the intracluster medium.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)166-186
Number of pages21
JournalMonthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society
Issue number1
StatePublished - Sep 1 2017
Externally publishedYes

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Astronomy and Astrophysics
  • Space and Planetary Science


  • Darkmatter
  • Galaxies: clusters: general
  • Large-scale structure of Universe
  • Methods: numerical
  • X-rays: galaxies: clusters


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