Resistance of digital watermarks to collusive attacks

J. Kilian, F. T. Leighton, L. R. Matheson, T. G. Shamoon, R. E. Tarjan, F. Zane

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution

49 Scopus citations


In digital watermarking (also called digital fingerprinting), extra information is embedded imperceptibly into digital content (such as an audio track, a still image, or a movie). This extra information can be read by authorized parties, and other users attempting to remove the watermark cannot do so without destroying the value of the content by making perceptible changes to the content. This provides a disincentive to copying by allowing copies to be traced to their original owner. Unlike cryptography, digital watermarking provides protection to content that is in the clear. It is not easy to design watermarks that are hard to erase, especially if an attacker has access to several differently marked copies of the same base content. Cox et al. (see IEEE Trans. on Image Processing, vol.6, no.12, p.1673-87, 1997) have proposed the use of additive normally distributed values as watermarks, and have sketched an argument showing that, in a certain theoretical model, such watermarks are resistant to collusive attacks. Here, we fill in the mathematical justification for this claim.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Title of host publicationProceedings - 1998 IEEE International Symposium on Information Theory, ISIT 1998
Number of pages1
StatePublished - 1998
Event1998 IEEE International Symposium on Information Theory, ISIT 1998 - Cambridge, MA, United States
Duration: Aug 16 1998Aug 21 1998

Publication series

NameIEEE International Symposium on Information Theory - Proceedings
ISSN (Print)2157-8095


Other1998 IEEE International Symposium on Information Theory, ISIT 1998
Country/TerritoryUnited States
CityCambridge, MA

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Theoretical Computer Science
  • Information Systems
  • Modeling and Simulation
  • Applied Mathematics


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