Resist-Free Lithography for Monolayer Transition Metal Dichalcogenides

Preeti K. Poddar, Yu Zhong, Andrew J. Mannix, Fauzia Mujid, Jaehyung Yu, Ce Liang, Jong Hoon Kang, Myungjae Lee, Saien Xie, Jiwoong Park

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

23 Scopus citations


Photolithography and electron-beam lithography are the most common methods for making nanoscale devices from semiconductors. While these methods are robust for bulk materials, they disturb the electrical properties of two-dimensional (2D) materials, which are highly sensitive to chemicals used during lithography processes. Here, we report a resist-free lithography method, based on direct laser patterning and resist-free electrode transfer, which avoids unintentional modification to the 2D materials throughout the process. We successfully fabricate large arrays of field-effect transistors using MoS2 and WSe2 monolayers, the performance of which reflects the properties of the pristine materials. Furthermore, using these pristine devices as a reference, we reveal that among the various stages of a conventional lithography process, exposure to a solvent like acetone changes the electrical conductivity of MoS2 the most. This new approach will enable a rational design of reproducible processes for making large-scale integrated circuits based on 2D materials and other surface-sensitive materials.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)726-732
Number of pages7
JournalNano Letters
Issue number2
StatePublished - Jan 26 2022
Externally publishedYes

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • General Chemistry
  • Condensed Matter Physics
  • Mechanical Engineering
  • Bioengineering
  • General Materials Science


  • Doping
  • Field-effect transistors
  • Lithography
  • Molybdenum disulfide
  • Two-dimensional materials


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