A novel relativistic quantum theory of the free-electron laser is formulated using the Dirac equation. It is shown that the theory has the correct classical limit. It is predicted that for two-stage free-electron lasers, quantum noise can be comparable to the classical noise due to the thermal spread of the beam or the random initial distribution of electrons in phase.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Atomic and Molecular Physics, and Optics