A family of single-component iron precatalysts for the [4+4]-cyclodimerization and intermolecular cross-[4+4]-cycloaddition of monosubstituted 1,3-dienes is described. Cyclooctadiene products were obtained with high regioselectivity, and catalyst-controlled access to either cis- or trans-diastereomers was achieved using 4-substituted diene substrates. Reactions conducted either with single-component precatalysts or with iron dihalide complexes activated in situ proved compatible with common organic functional groups and were applied on multigram scale (up to >100 g). Catalytically relevant, S = 1 iron complexes bearing 2-(imino)pyridine ligands, (RPI)FeL2 (RPI = [2-(2,6-R2-C6H3-Na-CMe)-C5H4N] where R = iPr or Me, L2 = bis-olefin), were characterized by single-crystal X-ray diffraction, Mößbauer spectroscopy, magnetic measurements, and DFT calculations. The structural and spectroscopic parameters are consistent with an electronic structure description comprised of a high spin iron(I) center (SFe = 3/2) engaged in antiferromagnetically coupling with a ligand radical anion (SPI = -1/2). Mechanistic studies conducted with these single-component precatalysts, including kinetic analyses, 12C/13C isotope effect measurements, and in situ Mößbauer spectroscopy, support a mechanism involving oxidative cyclization of two dienes that determines regio- and diastereoselectivity. Topographic steric maps derived from crystallographic data provided insights into the basis for the catalyst control through stereoselective oxidative cyclization and subsequent, stereospecific allyl-isomerization and C-C bond-forming reductive elimination.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Colloid and Surface Chemistry