TY - JOUR

T1 - Reflectivity, rain rate, and kinetic energy flux relationships based on raindrop spectra

AU - Steiner, M.

AU - Smith, James A.

N1 - Copyright:
Copyright 2017 Elsevier B.V., All rights reserved.

PY - 2000

Y1 - 2000

N2 - The relationships between radar reflectivity factor Z, rainfall rate R. and rainfall kinetic energy flux E were analyzed based on a multiyear raindrop spectra dataset recorded by a Joss-Waldvogel disdrometer in the Goodwin Creek research watershed in northern Mississippi. Particular attention was given to the climatological variability of the relationships and the uncertainty by which one rainfall parameter may be estimated from another. Substantial variability for the coefficients of a power-law relationship Y = AbXb between two rainfall parameters Y and X (where Y and X may stand for any paired combination of Z, R, and E) was found. The variability of the exponent b, however, was small enough to support approaches of climatologically fixed exponents to simplify radar rainfall estimation procedures. The multiplicative factor Ab should typically be adjusted on a storm basis. The uncertainty of the estimation of one rainfall parameter from another, being a function of the difference in weighting of the drop size by the two parameters and the variability of raindrop spectra, was found to be approximately 50% for the Z-R relation, 40% for the E-R relation, and 25% for the Z-E relation. For extreme precipitation intensities (R≥100 mm h-1), this drop spectra-based uncertainty reduced to approximately 20% for all three relationships. The results exhibited significant sensitivity to the choice of method applied to determine the relationship between two rainfall parameters. Appreciable sensitivity of the relationship between rainfall parameters (i.e. power-law coefficients and drop spectra-based uncertainty) to the number of raindrops registered per 1-min drop spectrum was also found.

AB - The relationships between radar reflectivity factor Z, rainfall rate R. and rainfall kinetic energy flux E were analyzed based on a multiyear raindrop spectra dataset recorded by a Joss-Waldvogel disdrometer in the Goodwin Creek research watershed in northern Mississippi. Particular attention was given to the climatological variability of the relationships and the uncertainty by which one rainfall parameter may be estimated from another. Substantial variability for the coefficients of a power-law relationship Y = AbXb between two rainfall parameters Y and X (where Y and X may stand for any paired combination of Z, R, and E) was found. The variability of the exponent b, however, was small enough to support approaches of climatologically fixed exponents to simplify radar rainfall estimation procedures. The multiplicative factor Ab should typically be adjusted on a storm basis. The uncertainty of the estimation of one rainfall parameter from another, being a function of the difference in weighting of the drop size by the two parameters and the variability of raindrop spectra, was found to be approximately 50% for the Z-R relation, 40% for the E-R relation, and 25% for the Z-E relation. For extreme precipitation intensities (R≥100 mm h-1), this drop spectra-based uncertainty reduced to approximately 20% for all three relationships. The results exhibited significant sensitivity to the choice of method applied to determine the relationship between two rainfall parameters. Appreciable sensitivity of the relationship between rainfall parameters (i.e. power-law coefficients and drop spectra-based uncertainty) to the number of raindrops registered per 1-min drop spectrum was also found.

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U2 - 10.1175/1520-0450(2000)039<1923:RRRAKE>2.0.CO;2

DO - 10.1175/1520-0450(2000)039<1923:RRRAKE>2.0.CO;2

M3 - Article

AN - SCOPUS:0034493004

SN - 0894-8763

VL - 39

SP - 1923

EP - 1940

JO - Journal of Applied Meteorology

JF - Journal of Applied Meteorology

IS - 11

ER -