Quantitative Measurement of Positive and Negative Ion Species Ejected from a Li–O–H Surface by Hydrogen and Noble Gas Ion Irradiation

S. Abe, E. T. Ostrowski, A. Maan, P. Krstic, R. Majeski, B. E. Koel

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We report sputtering yields of Li+, H, O, and OHx ion species from an Li–O–H surface for H, D, He, Ne, and Ar ion irradiation at 45° incidence in the energy range of 30–2000 eV. A Li film was deposited on a stainless steel target using Li evaporators in the LTX-β vessel, using the LTX-β Sample Exposure Probe (SEP), which includes an ultrahigh vacuum suitcase for transferring targets without significant contamination from air exposure. The SEP was used to transfer the Li-coated target from LTX-β to a separate Sample Exposure Station (SES) to perform ion exposure measurements. The SEP was also used for characterization of the Li-coated target utilizing X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy in a different chamber, showing that the lithium film surface was oxidized. Ion exposures were performed using an electron cyclotron resonance plasma source in the SES. Sputtered/ejected species were sampled by a quadrupole mass spectrometer with capabilities for detecting positive and negative ions, and an energy filter for determining the mean kinetic energy of the ejected ion species. All ion irradiations caused Li+ ions to be ejected, while causing impurity ions such as H+, H, O and OH to be ejected. Measured ion energies of Li+ ions from a Li–O–H surface suggested that the typical sheath potential on the divertor surface can trap sputtered Li+ ions, which were previously reported as ~ 60% of total sputtered Li species from Li targets (Allain and Ruzic in Nucl Fusion 42:202, 2002). Hence, our results for the sputtering yields of ejected ion species and their associated ion energies from a Li–O–H surface indicates that lithium sputtering is suppressed and impurity removal is enhanced due to the sheath potential at the divertor surface for fusion reactor applications.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number35
JournalJournal of Fusion Energy
Issue number2
StatePublished - Dec 2023

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Nuclear and High Energy Physics
  • Nuclear Energy and Engineering


  • Divertor
  • Erosion
  • LTX-β
  • Lithium
  • Plasma-material interaction
  • Secondary ion mass spectroscopy
  • Sheath


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