AU Bacterial: Pleaseconfirmthatallheadinglevelsarerepresentedcorrectly biofilms are multicellular communities that collectively : overcome environmental threats and clinical treatments. To regulate the biofilm lifecycle, bacteria commonly transduce sensory information via the second messenger molecule cyclic diguanylate (c-di-GMP). Using experimental and modeling approaches, we quantitatively capture c-di-GMP signal transmission via the bifunctional polyamine receptor NspS-MbaA, from ligand binding to output, in the pathogen Vibrio cholerae. Upon binding of norspermidine or spermidine, NspS-MbaA synthesizes or degrades c-di-GMP, respectively, which, in turn, drives alterations specifically to biofilm gene expression. A long-standing question is how output specificity is achieved via c-di-GMP, a diffusible molecule that regulates dozens of effectors. We show that NspS-MbaA signals locally to specific effectors, sensitizing V. cholerae to polyamines. However, local signaling is not required for specificity, as changes to global cytoplasmic c-di-GMP levels can selectively regulate biofilm genes. This work establishes the input–output dynamics underlying c-di-GMP signaling, which could be useful for developing bacterial manipulation strategies.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology(all)
- Immunology and Microbiology(all)
- Agricultural and Biological Sciences(all)