This chapter focuses on development of large-scale modeling tools to quantify potential CO2 leakage along existing wells. Geological storage of CO2 is emerging as one of the most promising options for carbon mitigation. While this approach appears to be technically feasible, a comprehensive risk assessment is required to determine the overall effectiveness and possible environmental consequences of this approach. One important part of such a risk assessment is an analysis of potential leakage of injected CO2 from the formation into which is injected, to other permeable formations or to the atmosphere. Such leakage is a concern because it may contaminate existing energy, mineral, and/or groundwater resources, it may pose a hazard at the ground surface, and it will contribute to increased concentrations of CO2 in the atmosphere.
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