Qualitative assessment of macaque tourist sites in Padangtegal, Bali, Indonesia, and the upper rock nature reserve, Gibraltar

Agustín Fuentes, Eric Shaw, John Cortes

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

51 Scopus citations


Human tourists share space with, touch, feed, and otherwise interact with Macaca at multiple locations. Across Asia and stretching to Gibraltar and Northern Africa, macaques form a substantial tourist attraction as their ranges become increasingly coincident with human use zones. Residing in or as tourist attractions, macaques frequently generate economic benefits to local humans and compete with them for habitat and specific resources. In addition, health conflicts may emerge from increased overlap and interactions between humans and macaques. There is only a handful of studies on the impact, structure, context, and cultural ecology of macaque tourist sites. We provide a general overview of 2 macaque tourist sites, one in Padangtegal, Bali, Indonesia and one in Gibraltar. Qualitative assessment reveals variability in behavioral, ecological, economic, and politically relevant facets of macaque tourism. Specifically, differences in aggression during interactions, potential health dangers, economic factors, and local human perceptions between Padangtegal and Gibraltar suggest that qualitative assessments can assist in our construction of broader models and conceptualizations of the interaction context.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1143-1158
Number of pages16
JournalInternational Journal of Primatology
Issue number5
StatePublished - Oct 2007
Externally publishedYes

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Ecology, Evolution, Behavior and Systematics
  • Animal Science and Zoology


  • Bali
  • Commensalism
  • Conflict
  • Gibraltar
  • Macaque tourism
  • Qualitative assessment


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