TY - JOUR

T1 - Polynomial bounds for chromatic number VI. Adding a four-vertex path

AU - Chudnovsky, Maria

AU - Scott, Alex

AU - Seymour, Paul

AU - Spirkl, Sophie

N1 - Funding Information:
Supported by NSF DMS-EPSRC grant DMS-2120644.Research supported by EPSRC grant EP/V007327/1.Supported by AFOSR grants A9550-19-1-0187 and FA9550-22-1-0234, and NSF grant DMS-2154169.We acknowledge the support of the Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada (NSERC), [funding reference number RGPIN-2020-03912]. Cette recherche a été financée par le Conseil de recherches en sciences naturelles et en génie du Canada (CRSNG), [numéro de référence RGPIN-2020-03912].
Publisher Copyright:
© 2023 Elsevier Ltd

PY - 2023/5

Y1 - 2023/5

N2 - A hereditary class of graphs is χ-bounded if there is a function f such that every graph G in the class has chromatic number at most f(ω(G)), where ω(G) is the clique number of G; and the class is polynomially χ-bounded if f can be taken to be a polynomial. The Gyárfás–Sumner conjecture asserts that, for every forest H, the class of H-free graphs (graphs with no induced copy of H) is χ-bounded. Let us say a forest H is good if it satisfies the stronger property that the class of H-free graphs is polynomially χ-bounded. Very few forests are known to be good: for example, the goodness of the five-vertex path is open. Indeed, it is not even known that if every component of a forest H is good then H is good, and in particular, it was not known that the disjoint union of two four-vertex paths is good. Here we show the latter (with corresponding polynomial ω(G)16); and more generally, that if H is good then so is the disjoint union of H and a four-vertex path. We also prove an even more general result: if every component of H1 is good, and H2 is any path (or broom) then the class of graphs that are both H1-free and H2-free is polynomially χ-bounded.

AB - A hereditary class of graphs is χ-bounded if there is a function f such that every graph G in the class has chromatic number at most f(ω(G)), where ω(G) is the clique number of G; and the class is polynomially χ-bounded if f can be taken to be a polynomial. The Gyárfás–Sumner conjecture asserts that, for every forest H, the class of H-free graphs (graphs with no induced copy of H) is χ-bounded. Let us say a forest H is good if it satisfies the stronger property that the class of H-free graphs is polynomially χ-bounded. Very few forests are known to be good: for example, the goodness of the five-vertex path is open. Indeed, it is not even known that if every component of a forest H is good then H is good, and in particular, it was not known that the disjoint union of two four-vertex paths is good. Here we show the latter (with corresponding polynomial ω(G)16); and more generally, that if H is good then so is the disjoint union of H and a four-vertex path. We also prove an even more general result: if every component of H1 is good, and H2 is any path (or broom) then the class of graphs that are both H1-free and H2-free is polynomially χ-bounded.

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U2 - 10.1016/j.ejc.2023.103710

DO - 10.1016/j.ejc.2023.103710

M3 - Article

AN - SCOPUS:85149777084

SN - 0195-6698

VL - 110

JO - European Journal of Combinatorics

JF - European Journal of Combinatorics

M1 - 103710

ER -