Polygenic scores associated with educational attainment in adults predict educational achievement and ADHD symptoms in children

Eveline L. de Zeeuw, Catharina E.M. van Beijsterveldt, Tina J. Glasner, M. Bartels, Erik A. Ehli, Gareth E. Davies, James J. Hudziak, Cornelius A. Rietveld, Maria M. Groen-Blokhuis, Jouke Jan Hottenga, Eco J.C. de Geus, Dorret I. Boomsma, Abdel Abdellaoui, Arpana Agrawal, Eva Albrecht, Behrooz Z. Alizadeh, Jüri Allik, Najaf Amin, John R. Attia, Stefania BandinelliJohn Barnard, François Bastardot, Sebastian E. Baumeister, Jonathan Beauchamp, Daniel J. Benjamin, Kelly S. Benke, David A. Bennett, Klaus Berger, Lawrence F. Bielak, Laura J. Bierut, Jeffrey A. Boatman, Patricia A. Boyle, Ute Bültmann, Harry Campbell, David Cesarini, Christopher F. Chabris, Lynn Cherkas, Mina K. Chung, Dalton Conley, Francesco Cucca, George Davey-Smith, Gail Davies, Mariza De Andrade, Philip L. De Jager, Christiaan De Leeuw, Jan Emmanuel De, Ian J. Deary, George V. Dedoussis, Panos Deloukas, Jaime Derringer, Maria Dimitriou, Gudny Eiriksdottir, Niina Eklund, Martin F. Elderson, Johan G. Eriksson, Esko Toñu Esko, Daniel S. Evans, David M. Evans, Jessica D. Faul, Rudolf Fehrmann, Luigi Ferrucci, Krista Fischer, Lude Franke, Melissa E. Garcia, Christian Gieger, Hakon K. Gjessing, Patrick J.F. Groenen, Henrik Grönberg, Vilmundur Gudnason, Sara Hägg, Per Hall, Jennifer R. Harris, Juliette M. Harris, Tamara B. Harris, Nicholas D. Hastie, Caroline Hayward, Andrew C. Heath, Dena G. Hernandez, Wolgang Hoffmann, Adriaan Hofman, Albert Hofman, Rolf Holle, Elizabeth G. Holliday, Christina Holzapfel, Jouke Jan Hottenga, William G. Iacono, Carla A. Ibrahim-Verbaas, Thomas Illig, Erik Ingelsson, Bo Jacobsson, Marjo Riitta Järvelin, Min A. Jhun, Magnus Johannesson, Peter K. Joshi, Astanand Jugessur, Marika Kaakinen, Mika Kähönen, Stavroula Kanoni, Jaakkko Kaprio, Sharon L.R. Kardia, Juha Karjalainen, Robert M. Kirkpatrick, Philipp D. Koellinger, Ivana Kolcic, Matthew Kowgier, Kati Kristiansson, Robert F. Krueger, Zó Ltan Kutalik, Jari Lahti, David Laibson, Antti Latvala, Lenore J. Launer, Debbie A. Lawlor, Sang H. Lee, Terho Lethimäki, Jingmei Li, Paul Lichtenstein, Peter K. Lichtner, David C. Liewald, Peng Lin, Penelope A. Lind, Yongmei Liu, Kurt Lohman, Marisa Loitfelder, Pamela A. Madden, Patrick K.E. Magnusson, Tomi E. Mäkinen, Pedro Marques Vidal, Nicolas W. Martin, Nicholas G. Martin, Marco Masala, Matt McGue, George McMahon, Sarah E. Medland, Osorio Meirelles, Andres Metspalu, Michelle N. Meyer, Andreas Mielck, Lili Milani, Michael B. Miller, Grant W. Montgomery, Sutapa Mukherjee, Ronny Myhre, Marja Liisa Nuotio, Dale R. Nyholt, Christopher J. Oldmeadow, Ben A. Oostra, Lyle J. Palmer, Aarno Palotie, Brenda Penninx, Markus Perola, Katja E. Petrovic, Wouter J. Peyrot, Patricia A. Peyser, Polasek Ozren Polasek, Danielle Posthuma, Martin Preisig, Lydia Quaye, Katri Räikkönen, Olli T. Raitakari, Anu Realo, Eva Reinmaa, John P. Rice, Susan M. Ring, Samuli Ripatti, Fernando Rivadeneira, Thais S. Rizzi, Igor Rudan, Aldo Rustichini, Veikko Salomaa, Antti Pekka Sarin, David Schlessinger, Helena Schmidt, Reinhold Schmidt, Rodney J. Scott, Konstantin Shakhbazov, Albert V. Smith, Jennifer A. Smith, Harold Snieder, Beate St Pourcain, John M. Starr, Jae Hoon Sul, Ida Surakka, Rauli Svento, Toshiko Tanaka, Antonio Terracciano, Alexander Teumer, A. Roy Thurik, Henning Tiemeier, Nicholas J. Timpson, André G. Uitterlinden, Matthijs J.H.M. Van Der Loos, Cornelia M. Van Duijn, Frank J.A. Van Rooij, David R. Van Wagoner, Erkki Vartiainen, Jorma Viikari, Peter M. Visscher, Veronique Vitart, Peter K. Vollenweider, Henry Völzke, Judith M. Vonk, Gérard Waeber, David R. Weir, Jürgen Wellmann, Harm Jan Westra, H. Erich Wichmann, Elisabeth Widen, Gonneke Willemsen, James F. Wilson, Alan F. Wright, Jian Yang, Lei Yu, Wei Zhao

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

21 Scopus citations

Abstract

The American Psychiatric Association estimates that 3 to 7 per cent of all school aged children are diagnosed with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Even after correcting for general cognitive ability, numerous studies report a negative association between ADHD and educational achievement. With polygenic scores we examined whether genetic variants that have a positive influence on educational attainment have a protective effect against ADHD. The effect sizes from a large GWA meta-analysis of educational attainment in adults were used to calculate polygenic scores in an independent sample of 12-year-old children from the Netherlands Twin Register. Linear mixed models showed that the polygenic scores significantly predicted educational achievement, school performance, ADHD symptoms and attention problems in children. These results confirm the genetic overlap between ADHD and educational achievement, indicating that one way to gain insight into genetic variants responsible for variation in ADHD is to include data on educational achievement, which are available at a larger scale.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)510-520
Number of pages11
JournalAmerican Journal of Medical Genetics, Part B: Neuropsychiatric Genetics
Volume165
Issue number6
DOIs
StatePublished - 2014

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Genetics(clinical)
  • Psychiatry and Mental health
  • Cellular and Molecular Neuroscience

Keywords

  • ADHD
  • Educational achievement
  • Genetics
  • Polygenic scores
  • School performance

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