Political identity: Experimental evidence on Anti-Americanism in Pakistan

Leonardo Bursztyn, Bruno Ferman, Ali Hasanain, Michael Callen, Saad Gulzar, Noam Yuchtman

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

13 Scopus citations


We identify Pakistani men’s willingness to pay to preserve their anti-American identity using two experiments imposing clearly specified financial costs on anti-American expression, with minimal consequential or social considerations. In two distinct studies, one-quarter to one-third of subjects forgo payments from the U.S. government worth around one-fifth of a day’s wage to avoid an identity-threatening choice: anonymously checking a box indicating gratitude toward the U.S. government. We find sensitivity to both payment size and anticipated social context: when subjects anticipate that rejection will be observable by others, rejection falls suggesting that, for some, social image can outweigh self-image.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)2532-2560
Number of pages29
JournalJournal of the European Economic Association
Issue number5
StatePublished - 2020
Externally publishedYes

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • General Economics, Econometrics and Finance


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