We present a large range of experimental data concerning the influence of surfactants on the well-known Landau-Levich-Derjaguin experiment where a liquid film is generated by pulling a plate out of a bath. The thickness h of the film was measured as a function of the pulling velocity V for different kinds of surfactants (C 12E 6, which is a nonionic surfactant, and DeTAB and DTAB, which are ionic) and at various concentrations near and above the critical micellar concentration (cmc). We report the thickening factor α = h/h LLD, where h LLD is the film thickness obtained without a surfactant effect, i.e., as for a pure fluid but with the same viscosity and surface tension as the surfactant solution, over a wide range of capillary numbers (Ca = ηV/γ, with η being the surfactant solution viscosity and γ its surface tension) and identify three regimes: (i) at small Ca α is large due to confinement and surface elasticity (or Marangoni) effects, (ii) for increasing Ca there is an intermediate regime where α decreases as Ca increases, and (iii) at larger (but still small) Ca α is slightly higher than unity due to surface viscosity effects. In the case of nonionic surfactants, the second regime begins at a fixed Ca, independent of the surfactant concentration, while for ionic surfactants the transition depends on the concentration, which we suggest is probably due to the existence of an electrostatic barrier to surface adsorption. Control of the physical chemistry at the interface allowed us to elucidate the nature of the three regimes in terms of surface rheological properties.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Materials Science(all)
- Condensed Matter Physics
- Surfaces and Interfaces