Planck intermediate results: XXXVII. Evidence of unbound gas from the kinetic Sunyaev-Zeldovich effect

P. A.R. Ade, N. Aghanim, M. Arnaud, M. Ashdown, E. Aubourg, J. Aumont, C. Baccigalupi, A. J. Banday, R. B. Barreiro, N. Bartolo, E. Battaner, K. Benabed, A. Benoit-Lévy, M. Bersanelli, P. Bielewicz, J. J. Bock, A. Bonaldi, L. Bonavera, J. R. Bond, J. BorrillF. R. Bouchet, C. Burigana, E. Calabrese, J. F. Cardoso, A. Catalano, A. Chamballu, H. C. Chiang, P. R. Christensen, D. L. Clements, L. P.L. Colombo, C. Combet, B. P. Crill, A. Curto, F. Cuttaia, L. Danese, R. D. Davies, R. J. Davis, P. De Bernardis, G. De Zotti, J. Delabrouille, C. Dickinson, J. M. Diego, K. Dolag, S. Donzelli, O. Doré, M. Douspis, A. Ducout, X. Dupac, G. Efstathiou, F. Elsner, T. A. Enßlin, H. K. Eriksen, F. Finelli, O. Forni, M. Frailis, A. A. Fraisse, E. Franceschi, A. Frejsel, S. Galeotta, S. Galli, K. Ganga, R. T. Génova-Santos, M. Giard, E. Gjerløw, J. González-Nuevo, K. M. Górski, A. Gregorio, A. Gruppuso, F. K. Hansen, D. L. Harrison, S. Henrot-Versillé, C. Hernández-Monteagudo, D. Herranz, S. R. Hildebrandt, E. Hivon, M. Hobson, A. Hornstrup, K. M. Huffenberger, G. Hurier, A. H. Jaffe, T. R. Jaffe, W. C. Jones, M. Juvela, E. Keihänen, R. Keskitalo, F. Kitaura, R. Kneissl, J. Knoche, M. Kunz, H. Kurki-Suonio, G. Lagache, J. M. Lamarre, A. Lasenby, M. Lattanzi, C. R. Lawrence, R. Leonardi, J. León-Tavares, F. Levrier, M. Liguori, P. B. Lilje, M. Linden-Vørnle, M. López-Caniego, P. M. Lubin, Y. Z. Ma, J. F. Macías-Pérez, B. Maffei, D. Maino, D. S.Y. Mak, N. Mandolesi, A. Mangilli, M. Maris, P. G. Martin, E. Martínez-González, S. Masi, S. Matarrese, P. McGehee, A. Melchiorri, A. Mennella, M. Migliaccio, M. A. Miville-Deschênes, A. Moneti, L. Montier, G. Morgante, D. Mortlock, D. Munshi, J. A. Murphy, P. Naselsky, F. Nati, P. Natoli, F. Noviello, D. Novikov, I. Novikov, C. A. Oxborrow, L. Pagano, F. Pajot, D. Paoletti, O. Perdereau, L. Perotto, V. Pettorino, F. Piacentini, M. Piat, E. Pierpaoli, E. Pointecouteau, G. Polenta, N. Ponthieu, G. W. Pratt, J. L. Puget, S. Puisieux, J. P. Rachen, B. Racine, W. T. Reach, M. Reinecke, M. Remazeilles, C. Renault, A. Renzi, I. Ristorcelli, G. Rocha, C. Rosset, M. Rossetti, G. Roudier, J. A. Rubiño-Martín, B. Rusholme, M. Sandri, D. Santos, M. Savelainen, G. Savini, D. Scott, L. D. Spencer, V. Stolyarov, R. Sudiwala, R. Sunyaev, D. Sutton, A. S. Suur-Uski, J. F. Sygnet, J. A. Tauber, L. Terenzi, L. Toffolatti, M. Tomasi, M. Tucci, L. Valenziano, J. Valiviita, B. Van Tent, P. Vielva, F. Villa, L. A. Wade, B. D. Wandelt, W. Wang, I. K. Wehus, D. Yvon, A. Zacchei, A. Zonca

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39 Scopus citations


By looking at the kinetic Sunyaev-Zeldovich effect (kSZ) in Planck nominal mission data, we present a significant detection of baryons participating in large-scale bulk flows around central galaxies (CGs) at redshift z ≈ 0.1. We estimate the pairwise momentum of the kSZ temperature fluctuations at the positions of the Central Galaxy Catalogue (CGC) samples extracted from Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS-DR7) data. For the foreground-cleaned SEVEM, SMICA, NILC, and COMMANDER maps, we find 1.8-2.5σ detections of the kSZ signal, which are consistent with the kSZ evidence found in individual Planck raw frequency maps, although lower than found in the WMAP-9yr W-band (3.3σ). We further reconstruct the peculiar velocity field from the CG density field, and compute for the first time the cross-correlation function between kSZ temperature fluctuations and estimates of CG radial peculiar velocities. This correlation function yields a 3.0-3.7σ detection of the peculiar motion of extended gas on Mpc scales in flows correlated up to distances of 80-100 h-1 Mpc. Both the pairwise momentum estimates and the kSZ temperature-velocity field correlation find evidence for kSZ signatures out to apertures of 8 arcmin and beyond, corresponding to a physical radius of >1 Mpc, more than twice the mean virial radius of halos. This is consistent with the predictions from hydrodynamical simulations that most of the baryons are outside the virialized halos. We fit a simple model, in which the temperature-velocity cross-correlation is proportional to the signal seen in a semi-analytic model built upon N-body simulations, and interpret the proportionality constant as an effective optical depth to Thomson scattering. We find τT = (1.4 ± 0.5) × 10-4; the simplest interpretation of this measurement is that much of the gas is in a diffuse phase, which contributes little signal to X-ray or thermal Sunyaev-Zeldovich observations.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article numberA140
JournalAstronomy and Astrophysics
StatePublished - Feb 1 2016

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Astronomy and Astrophysics
  • Space and Planetary Science


  • Cosmic background radiation
  • Cosmology: observations
  • Galaxies: clusters: intracluster medium
  • Large-scale structure of Universe

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    Ade, P. A. R., Aghanim, N., Arnaud, M., Ashdown, M., Aubourg, E., Aumont, J., Baccigalupi, C., Banday, A. J., Barreiro, R. B., Bartolo, N., Battaner, E., Benabed, K., Benoit-Lévy, A., Bersanelli, M., Bielewicz, P., Bock, J. J., Bonaldi, A., Bonavera, L., Bond, J. R., ... Zonca, A. (2016). Planck intermediate results: XXXVII. Evidence of unbound gas from the kinetic Sunyaev-Zeldovich effect. Astronomy and Astrophysics, 586, [A140].