Physical-Layer Security with Optical Generalized Space Shift Keying

Erdal Panayirci, Anil Yesilkaya, Tezcan Cogalan, H. Vincent Poor, Harald Haas

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

35 Scopus citations


Spatial modulation (SM) is a promising technique that reduces inter-channel interference while providing high power efficiency and detection simplicity. In order to ensure the secrecy of SM, precoding and friendly jamming are widely adopted in the literature. However, neither of those methods can take advantage of SM. In this paper, a novel spatial constellation design (SCD) technique is proposed to enhance the physical layer security (PLS) of optical generalized space shift keying (GSSK), which can retain some benefits of SM. Due to the lack of small-scale fading, the quasi-static characteristics of the optical channel is used to tailor the received signal at the legitimate user's (Bob's) side. The PLS of the system is guaranteed by the appropriate selection of the power allocation coefficients for randomly activated light emitting diodes (LEDs). With the aid of Bob's channel state information at the transmitter, the bit error ratio (BER) of Bob is minimized while the BER performance of the potential eavesdroppers (Eves) is significantly degraded. Monte-Carlo simulation results show that the proposed SCD-zero forcing precoding (ZFP) forces Eve to experience a BER of around 0.5 by outperforming both the conventional and ZFP based GSSK for all practical signal-to-noise-ratio regimes and Bob-Eve separations.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number8970563
Pages (from-to)3042-3056
Number of pages15
JournalIEEE Transactions on Communications
Issue number5
StatePublished - May 2020
Externally publishedYes

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering


  • PHY layer security
  • generalized space shift keying (GSSK)
  • multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) channels
  • optical wireless communications (OWC)
  • secrecy capacity


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