Photo-Crosslinkable Naphthalene Diimide Polymer for Solution-Processed n-i-p Perovskite Solar Cells

Yangwei Shi, Declan P. McCarthy, Dominique Lungwitz, Fangyuan Jiang, Margherita Taddei, Hannah Contreras, Yujing Lin, Aiswarya Abhisek Mohapatra, Kan Tang, Yadong Zhang, Stephen Barlow, Antoine Kahn, Seth R. Marder, David S. Ginger

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

1 Scopus citations


We copolymerize a norbornene monomer bearing a pendant naphthalene diimide with a norbornene bearing a cinnamate pendant moiety to synthesize a crosslinkable electron-transporting polymer and study its use in solution-processed n-i-p perovskite solar cells. The crosslinked material exhibits over 90% transparency in the visible region and higher thermal stability (>300 °C) and lower surface energy than the corresponding homopolymer of the naphthalene diimide functionalized norbornene. Coating an ITO surface with the photo-crosslinked copolymer yields a slightly lower work function than homopolymer-coated ITO. We show that the morphologies of the perovskite films deposited on both polymers are similar (∼300 nm features) based upon scanning electron microscopy. Our solar-cell device results show that the crosslinked naphthalene diimide polymer gives a higher open-circuit voltage (1.08 vs 1.05 V), fill factor (average 64.43 vs 58.77%), and stabilized power conversion efficiency (12.28 vs 10.33%) compared to its non-crosslinked homopolymer counterpart, as well as reduced hysteresis. We attribute the improved performance to decreased work function, reduced nonradiative recombination, and higher shunt resistance.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)795-802
Number of pages8
JournalChemistry of Materials
Issue number2
StatePublished - Jan 23 2024
Externally publishedYes

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • General Chemistry
  • General Chemical Engineering
  • Materials Chemistry


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