TY - JOUR

T1 - Phase transitions in vector-gluon models

T2 - A solution to the U(3) problem

AU - Langacker, Paul

AU - Pagels, Heinz

PY - 1974/1/1

Y1 - 1974/1/1

N2 - We have examined the realizations of chiral symmetry in the Abelian vector-gluon model, in the absence of gluon self-energy. The chiral symmetry is broken spontaneously in the vacuum. A vacuum stability condition on the gluon coupling, g, and the gluon-fermion mass ratio μm of the form fπ2(g2,μ2m2)>0 is obtained as a necessary condition for a Nambu-Goldstone realization with bound-state Goldstone bosons. Here fπ is the decay constant of the bound-state Goldstone boson. It is shown that for those channels that do not communicate with pairs of vector gluons this condition is satisfied in the weak-coupling limit, g2→0. For axialvector currents that satisfy anomalous Ward identities and communicate with pairs of gluons we show that the renormalized integral equations for fπ2 do not possess solutions. The failure to find a Goldstone solution for these channels is associated with the fact that these axialvector currents have an anomalous dimension greater than three. Instead of Goldstone bosons one finds that axial-vector-current conservation breaks down and the symmetry is broken explicitly. Hence, there is no Goldstone boson associated with "axial baryonic charge." This also answers in the negative the old question of whether electrodynamics can support a Goldstone mode. We also calculate gA-1 to order g2 and discuss phase transitions between the Wigner-Weyl mode, the Goldstone mode, and the mode in which the symmetry is explicitly broken. We also speculate on the implications of this work for gauge theories of the strong interactions.

AB - We have examined the realizations of chiral symmetry in the Abelian vector-gluon model, in the absence of gluon self-energy. The chiral symmetry is broken spontaneously in the vacuum. A vacuum stability condition on the gluon coupling, g, and the gluon-fermion mass ratio μm of the form fπ2(g2,μ2m2)>0 is obtained as a necessary condition for a Nambu-Goldstone realization with bound-state Goldstone bosons. Here fπ is the decay constant of the bound-state Goldstone boson. It is shown that for those channels that do not communicate with pairs of vector gluons this condition is satisfied in the weak-coupling limit, g2→0. For axialvector currents that satisfy anomalous Ward identities and communicate with pairs of gluons we show that the renormalized integral equations for fπ2 do not possess solutions. The failure to find a Goldstone solution for these channels is associated with the fact that these axialvector currents have an anomalous dimension greater than three. Instead of Goldstone bosons one finds that axial-vector-current conservation breaks down and the symmetry is broken explicitly. Hence, there is no Goldstone boson associated with "axial baryonic charge." This also answers in the negative the old question of whether electrodynamics can support a Goldstone mode. We also calculate gA-1 to order g2 and discuss phase transitions between the Wigner-Weyl mode, the Goldstone mode, and the mode in which the symmetry is explicitly broken. We also speculate on the implications of this work for gauge theories of the strong interactions.

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U2 - 10.1103/PhysRevD.9.3413

DO - 10.1103/PhysRevD.9.3413

M3 - Article

AN - SCOPUS:30244509143

VL - 9

SP - 3413

EP - 3427

JO - Physical Review D - Particles, Fields, Gravitation and Cosmology

JF - Physical Review D - Particles, Fields, Gravitation and Cosmology

SN - 1550-7998

IS - 12

ER -