## Abstract

Unresolved temperature and salinity fluctuations interact with a nonlinear seawater equation of state to produce significant errors in the ocean model evaluation of the large-scale density field. It is shown that the impact of temperature fluctuations dominates the impact of salinity fluctuations and that the error in density is, to leading order, proportional to the product of a subgrid-scale temperature variance and a second derivative of the equation of state. Two parameterizations are proposed to correct the large-scale density field: one deterministic and one stochastic. Free parameters in both parameterizations are fit using fine-resolution model data. Both parameterizations are computationally efficient as they require only one additional evaluation of a nonlinear equation at each grid cell. A companion paper will discuss the climate impacts of the parameterizations proposed here.

Original language | English (US) |
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Article number | e2020MS002185 |

Journal | Journal of Advances in Modeling Earth Systems |

Volume | 12 |

Issue number | 12 |

DOIs | |

State | Published - Dec 2020 |

## All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

- Global and Planetary Change
- Environmental Chemistry
- General Earth and Planetary Sciences

## Keywords

- equation of state
- stochastic parameterization
- subgrid-scale variability