Parafermions are the simplest generalizations of Majorana fermions that realize topological order. We propose a less restrictive notion of topological order in one-dimensional open chains, which generalizes the seminal work by Fendley [J. Stat. Mech. (2012) P1102010.1088/1742-5468/2012/11/P11020]. The first essential property is that the ground states are mutually indistinguishable by local, symmetric probes, and the second is a generalized notion of zero edge modes which cyclically permute the ground states. These two properties are shown to be topologically robust, and applicable to a wider family of topologically ordered Hamiltonians than has been previously considered. As an application of these edge modes, we formulate a notion of twisted boundary conditions on a closed chain, which guarantees that the closed-chain ground state is topological, i.e., it originates from the topological manifold of the open chain. Finally, we generalize these ideas to describe symmetry-breaking phases with a parafermionic order parameter. These exotic phases are condensates of parafermion multiplets, which generalize Cooper pairing in superconductors. The stability of these condensates is investigated on both open and closed chains.
|Original language||English (US)|
|Journal||Physical Review B|
|State||Published - Sep 2 2016|
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Electronic, Optical and Magnetic Materials
- Condensed Matter Physics