Over 19% Efficiency in Ternary Organic Solar Cells Enabled by n-Type Dopants

Zhaoheng Ling, Mohamad Insan Nugraha, Wisnu Tantyo Hadmojo, Yuanbao Lin, Sang Young Jeong, Emre Yengel, Hendrik Faber, Hua Tang, Frédéric Laquai, Abdul Hamid Emwas, Xiaoming Chang, Temur Maksudov, Murali Gedda, Han Young Woo, Iain McCulloch, Martin Heeney, Leonidas Tsetseris, Thomas D. Anthopoulos

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

18 Scopus citations


Molecular doping has become a valuable technique for enhancing the efficiency of high-performance organic photovoltaic systems (OPVs). However, the number of known dopant molecules, especially n-type ones, that enhance the PCE of OPVs remains limited. In this study, two n-type dopants, ethyl viologen (EV) and methyl viologen (MV), are synthesized and incorporated into ternary PM6:BTP-eC9:PC71BM bulk heterojunction (BHJ) OPVs. Both dopants are found to enhance the OPV performance, yielding maximum PCE values of 19.03% and 18.61%, respectively. We show that EV and MV function as n-type dopants and microstructure modifiers, enhancing π-π stacking while increasing the absorption coefficient of the BHJs. Moreover, the n-doping balances the carrier mobility while increasing the carrier lifetime and reducing bimolecular recombination. Our results demonstrate the potential of EV and MV to improve the performance of highly efficient OPVs to levels beyond those achievable by the pristine BHJ.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)4104-4112
Number of pages9
JournalACS Energy Letters
Issue number10
StatePublished - Oct 13 2023
Externally publishedYes

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Chemistry (miscellaneous)
  • Renewable Energy, Sustainability and the Environment
  • Fuel Technology
  • Energy Engineering and Power Technology
  • Materials Chemistry


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