### Abstract

A quantum control landscape is defined as the expectation value of a target observable Θ as a function of the control variables. In this work, control landscapes for open quantum systems governed by Kraus map evolution are analyzed. Kraus maps are used as the controls transforming an initial density matrix ρ_{i} into a final density matrix to maximize the expectation value of the observable Θ. The absence of suboptimal local maxima for the relevant control landscapes is numerically illustrated. The dependence of the optimization search effort is analyzed in terms of the dimension of the system N, the initial state ρ_{i} and the target observable Θ. It is found that if the number of nonzero eigenvalues in ρ_{i} remains constant, the search effort does not exhibit any significant dependence on N. If ρ_{i} has no zero eigenvalues, then the computational complexity and the required search effort rise with N. The dimension of the top manifold (i.e., the set of Kraus operators that maximizes the objective) is found to positively correlate with the optimization search efficiency. Under the assumption of full controllability, incoherent control modeled by Kraus maps is found to be more efficient in reaching the same value of the objective than coherent control modeled by unitary maps. Numerical simulations are also performed for control landscapes with linear constraints on the available Kraus maps, and suboptimal maxima are not revealed for these landscapes.

Original language | English (US) |
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Article number | 205305 |

Journal | Journal of Physics A: Mathematical and Theoretical |

Volume | 42 |

Issue number | 20 |

DOIs | |

State | Published - Jul 27 2009 |

### All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

- Statistical and Nonlinear Physics
- Statistics and Probability
- Modeling and Simulation
- Mathematical Physics
- Physics and Astronomy(all)

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## Cite this

*Journal of Physics A: Mathematical and Theoretical*,

*42*(20), [205305]. https://doi.org/10.1088/1751-8113/42/20/205305